25 Jan Puntland Gender Report
Society in Puntland like the rest of Somali society is very patriarchal and has strict construed gender roles that do not favor women. This has a lot of implications on the woman’s life and put women in the disadvantage position compared to men. This specific gender report assesses the disparities between men and women in the socio-economic aspects in Puntland.
The overall sex ratio for Puntland was 104 which indicates that the state has more males than females (national sex ratio is 103). Analysis shows that women marry earlier than men. However gap in the percentage of married men and women closes in fast with an increase in age. Divorce rates increase with age and so do widows and widowers, with widows having the highest percentage in the 80+ at 20 percent compared to males at 5 percent.
In Puntland, male headship rate is higher than women headship rate with more than a 60 percent difference for those aged 18 and above. The wide gaps are observed in all types of residences interviewed in rural, urban and the IDPs, across all levels of education, and wealth quintiles.
In Puntland, 44 percent of the population aged 40 and lower can read and write according to the population data. Literacy rate changes with wealth, those who live in the poorest conditions have the lowest literacy rate.
Adult literacy declines as age increases and is consistently lower for females. Literacy rates are also lower for the female population across all types of residences.
The GPI for primary schools was 0.9 while in secondary and in university it was 0.8 and 0.7 respectively, all give advantage to the male. The GPI in school enrolment declines with an increase in educational level, which indicates increased inequality in access to education as level of education increases. Enrolment increases with wealth status, the enrolment of females in second and third is 50 percent and 53 percent respectively.
In Puntland, total dependency ratios in 2014 was 85 for males and 79 for females, overall dependency ratio was 82 indicating a slightly higher number of total male dependents than female dependents. Males were more economically active than the females, by all education levels. The differences in economic activity status also cut across ages. Moreover, more males are in employment compared to females, with more females being employed in the agricultural sector compared to males.